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The Objectives Of Taxation – Discussed!

Top 6 Objectives Of Taxation

The main objective of taxation is to increase revenue such that it matches up to the huge public expenditure. The tax must finance a lot of government opportunities. However, it is not the only purpose. In general, the taxation policy includes a few non-revenue objectives.

In the modern world, generally speaking, taxation is usually applied as the basis of economic policy. It plays a significant role in the distribution of income, the balance of payments, choice of industrial techniques and location, investment, consumption, the total volume of production, and so on.

Below, you’ll learn more about the objectives of taxation when it comes to modern public finance.

Tax Preparer Yonnkers1. Full Employment

One of the crucial objectives of taxation is full employment. A country that desires to achieve the aim of full employment should reduce the rate of taxes because the level of employment generally relies on effective demand. As a result, there will be an increase in disposable income and, therefore, an increase in the demand for goods and services. An increase in demand will fuel the investment resulting in employment and income through the multiplier mechanism.

2. Economic Development

The second objective is economic development. Mostly, the growth of capital formation determines the economic development of any given country. It’s is known that capital formation is the pivotal role of economic development. However, there is often a shortage of capital when it comes to LDCs.

To fight the scarcity of capital in these countries, governments tend to mobilize resources such that a quick capital accumulation occurs. Generally, the government often taps into the tax revenues to step up both private and public investment. By following the correct tax planning, there can be an increase in the ratio of savings compared to national income.

The entire capital formation process can be made smooth by imposing new taxes or increasing the existing rate of taxes. One of the fundamental factors of capital formation is the increase of savings to income ratio, in which the taxation policy can effectively increase.

3. Control Of Cyclical Fluctuations

The control of cyclical fluctuations, which includes periods of depression and boom, is regarded as another goal of taxation. In the depression phase, there is a decrease in taxes, whereas there is an increase in taxes during the boom phase to tame the cyclical fluctuations.

4. Price Stability

Taxation can also play a role in ensuring price stability. In general, taxes are considered as an effective method to control inflation. There can be control in private spending by increasing the rate of direct taxes. The pressure on the given commodity market is naturally reduced.

However, imposing indirect taxes on commodities leads to inflationary tendencies. On the other hand, high commodity prices discourage consumption but encourage savings. You should expect the opposite effect with the lowering of taxes during deflation.

5. Decrease Of BOP Difficulties

Taxes such as customs duties are also used to manage the importation of specific goods to reduce the magnitude of the balance of payments difficulties, as well as to support domestic manufacturing of import substitutes.

6. Non-Revenue Objective

Lastly, another non-revenue or extra-revenue objective of taxation is the decrease in inequalities in wealth and income. By launching a system of progressive taxation or by taxing the affluent at a considerably higher rate compared to the poor, this can be done.

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10 Nontaxable sources of Income

The Internal Revenue Service defines income as any money, property or services that taxpayers receive. All types of income are taxable unless specifically excluded by law. There are a few exceptions, though, and they’re – needless to say – worth knowing about. This article will describe a few of the more common categories of nontaxable income.
Income That Isn’t Taxed

1. Disability Insurance Payments

Usually, disability benefits are taxable if they come from a policy with premiums that were paid by your employer. However, there are many other categories of disability benefits that are nontaxable.

  • If you purchase supplemental disability insurance through your employer with after-tax dollars, any benefits you receive from that plan are not taxable.
  • If you purchase a private disability insurance plan on your own with after-tax dollars, any benefits you receive from that plan are not taxable.
  • Workers’ compensation (the pay you receive when you are unable to work because of a work-related injury) is another type of disability benefit that is not taxable.
  • Compensatory (but not punitive) damages for physical injury or physical sickness, compensation for the permanent loss or loss of use of a part or function of your body, and compensation for your permanent disfigurement are not taxable.
  • Disability benefits from a public welfare fund are not taxable.
  • Disability benefits under a no-fault car insurance policy for loss of income or earning capacity as a result of injuries are also not taxable.

2. Employer-Provided Insurance

The IRS says that “generally, the value of accident or health plan coverage provided to you by your employer is not included in your income.” This could be health insurance provided through your employer by a third party (like Aetna or Blue Cross) or coverage and reimbursements for medical care provided through a health reimbursement arrangement (HRA). Furthermore, employer and employee contributions to a health savings account are not taxable. Employer-provided long-term care insurance and Archer MSA contributions (a type of medical savings account) are also not taxable.

3. Gift Giving of Up to $14,000 ($15,00 starting in 2018); Gift Receipt of Any Amount

Just as the IRS defines all income as taxable, except that which is specifically excluded by law, it defines all gifts as taxable, except those specifically excluded by law. Thankfully, there are many gifts that aren’t taxable, and any tax due is always paid by the gift-giver, not the recipient. (Note that a prize is not the same as a gift. Read Winning the Jackpot: Dream or Financial Nightmare? to learn more.)

Perhaps the most well-known exclusion is that individuals can gift up to a certain amount per recipient per year without the gift being taxable. For example, both spouses of a married couple could give each of their three children $14,000 in 2017 and $15,000 in 2018. The parents would gift a total of $87,000, and none of that gift would be taxable for either the parents or the children. Each child would receive $29,000 of nontaxable income.

The following types of income are also considered nontaxable gifts:

  • tuition or medical expenses paid on someone else’s behalf
  • political donations
  • gifts to charities (charitable donations) – in fact, these are tax-deductible, meaning that they reduce the giver’s taxable income by the amount of the donation if they itemize their deductions instead of taking the standard deduction (learn more in It Is Better to Give AND Receive)

An important exception to this rule is gifts from employers. These gifts are usually considered fringe benefits, not gifts, and are taxable income. A small gift worth less than $25, such as a holiday fruitcake, is an exception to the fringe benefit rule. (You might want to check out Top 7 Estate Planning Mistakes.)

To prevent tax evasion, the IRS also says that the gift tax applies “whether the donor intends the transfer to be a gift or not.” For example, if you sell something to someone at less than its market value, the IRS may consider it a gift. An accountant can provide you with tax-planning advice to help you avoid triggering the gift tax and let you know when you should file IRS Form 709, United States Gift (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return.

4. Life Insurance Payouts

If a loved one dies and leaves you a large life insurance benefit, this income is generally not taxable. However, be aware that there are some exceptions to this rule in more complex situations. IRS publication 525: Taxable and Nontaxable Income, describes these exceptions.

5. Sale of Principal Residence

Individuals and married couples who meet the IRS’s ownership and use tests, meaning that they have owned their home for at least two of the last five years and have lived in it as a principal residence for at least two of the last five years, can exclude from their income up to $250,000 (for individuals) or $500,000 (for married couples filing jointly) of capital gains from the sale of the home. That policy was challenged but ultimately not changed under the final version of the new GOP tax bill.

6. Up to $3,000 of Income Offset by Capital Losses

If you sell investments at a loss, you can use your loss to reduce your taxable income by up to $3,000 a year. Capital losses can even be carried over from year to year until the entire loss has been offset. For example, if you sold investments at a loss of $4,500 in 2016, you could subtract $3,000 from your taxable income on your 2016 tax return and $1,500 from your income on your 2017 tax return.

7. Income Earned in Seven States

Under the U.S.’s federalist system, each state is able to make many of its own laws. So even though most income is taxable at the federal level, and most states also levy a state tax on income, seven states – Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington and Wyoming – have chosen to not levy a state income tax on their residents. (Not surprisingly, that makes some states popular with retirees – though other factors, such as whether pensions and Social Security payments are taxed and the cost of living are also factors. Read Finding a Retirement-Friendly State.)

8. Corporate Income Earned in Four States

Some states also encourage corporations to locate there by not taxing corporate income. There are no corporate taxes in Nevada, Ohio, Texas and Washington, according to the Tax Foundation. Instead, these states impose gross receipts taxes. The lowest rates are North Carolina (3%), North Dakota (4.31%) and Colorado (4.63%).This tax break can encourage corporations to locate in these states.

9. Inheritance

The estate tax exemption doubles as part of the new GOP tax bill. In 2018, that figure was supposed to rise to $5.6 million for individuals; double for couples. Now that individual exemption will be $11.2 million, with couples at $22.4 million – a break that will last until 2026.

While the estate tax technically falls on the estate, it really affects the estate’s beneficiaries. But if you are the beneficiary of an estate that falls into the exempt category, you’ll get all that income tax free. And if you inherit an estate worth more than the exemption, you’ll still get the exempt amount tax free.

10. Municipal Bond Interest

Most of the time, when you invest in bonds, you have to pay federal, state and/or local tax on the yield you earn. However, when you earn money from municipal bonds, the proceeds are usually tax-free at the federal level and also tax-free at the state level if you live in the same state in which the bonds were issued. This tax exemption applies whether you invest in individual municipal bonds or purchase them through a municipal bond fund.

Although municipal bonds generally offer a lower rate of return than other types of bonds, when you consider their after-tax return, you may end up ahead by investing in municipal bonds. Municipal bonds are generally recommended only for higher-income individuals and married couples who fall into the 28% to 39.6% federal income tax brackets. (Investing in these bonds may offer a tax-free income stream, but they are not without risks. See The Basics of Municipal Bonds.)

The Bottom Line

Why has the IRS chosen to exempt these and a few other sources of income when it generally tries to tax everything? The answer to this question varies, depending on your political views. Reasons include the belief that eliminating or dramatically reducing taxes in certain areas will encourage certain activities thought to benefit the country, such as home ownership and investment, and reduce the risks associated with these activities. (Learn the logic behind the belief that reducing government income benefits everyone in Do Tax Cuts Stimulate the Economy?) In addition, some exemptions are targeted to people in need, such as those receiving certain categories of disability payments.


Source: Investopedia.

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What To Do If You Filed Your Taxes Late

Last year, your federal income tax return was due on Tuesday, April 17. That’s because the usual deadline, April 15, fell on a Sunday, and a federal holiday, Emancipation Day, fell on April 16. If you didn’t file your return on time despite the extra two days, here’s what to expect.

Interest and Penalties

If You Filed Your Taxes Late, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will charge you interest, compounded daily, on your unpaid tax. Interest accrues from the April 17 deadline until the date when you actually pay. The IRS’s annual interest rate on late payments is the federal short-term rate (currently 0%) plus 3%. The rate changes quarterly; taxpayers can find current rates at the IRS’s news release web page.

In addition to interest, you’ll be responsible for a late payment penalty of 0.5% plus a late filing penalty of 4.5%. Both penalties are charged on the amount of tax you owe for each month or partial month that you don’t pay your tax bill. The penalty maxes out at 47.5% – that’s 22.5% for filing late and 25% for paying late. The late filing penalty increases to 15% per month with a maximum of 75% for fraudulent failure to file.

The IRS will reduce or even eliminate the late filing and payment penalties if you can show “reasonable cause,” but the IRS may not interpret those words in the same way you would. Also, members of the armed forces who are currently serving in combat zones may qualify for an exception to the filing and payment deadlines. So will some taxpayers affected by recent natural disasters.

The good news is that you don’t have to worry about going to jail for filing or paying late or for making a mistake on your return. The IRS says it reserves criminal prosecution for “flagrant cases involving criminal violations of tax laws.”

Willful Neglect

If you don’t file a return, the IRS may prepare a return for you using the information it has about your income from W2s, 1099s and other forms it collects from third parties like your employer and financial institutions. An IRS-prepared return is unlikely to give you credit for all the deductions and exemptions you’re allowed, so an IRS-prepared return (also called a substitute return) is likely to result in your owing more tax than you were actually required to pay. If the IRS does file a substitute return, you’ll have the opportunity to correct it and receive the exemptions, credits and deductions you’re owed if you file your own return.


If you intentionally don’t pay your taxes or make any effort to pay them, the IRS can force you to pay them. It can levy your bank accounts, garnish your wages and/or seize your assets. It can also file liens against your assets, including your home. If you aren’t intentionally evading your tax liability but you can’t pay, your best bet is to file on time and work out a repayment plan with the IRS. Under such a plan, the IRS may lower your late payment penalty to 0.25% per month, and you won’t owe the late filing penalty of 4.5% per month.


What Is Considered on Time?


If you file your tax return electronically, your return transmission will have an electronic postmark. This electronic postmark determines whether you filed on time.


The IRS considers paper returns to be filed on time if they are “mailed in an envelope that is properly addressed, has enough postage and is postmarked by the due date.” If you use a private delivery service such as DHL, UPS or FedEx to send your tax return, the postmark date is considered to be “the date the private delivery service records in its database or marks on the mailing label.”


Tax Return Extensions

If you need more time to prepare your return, filing an automatic extension request is simple and straightforward. Filing form 4868 gives you an extra six months to prepare your return. Be aware that if you file an automatic extension, your filing deadline becomes October 15, not October 17. This extension does not, however, extend the amount of time you have to pay any tax you owe.


If you need more time to pay and you owe $50,000 or less in combined taxes, penalties and interest, try using the IRS’s online payment agreement to automatically set up a payment plan. You can do this even before you receive any notices from the IRS. Another option is to request a payment agreement by filing form 9465-FS. If you’re having trouble paying your taxes because you lost your job or your self-employment income has declined by 25% or more, you might qualify for penalty relief and a six-month payment extension under the IRS’s Fresh Start program.


The Bottom Line


In the future, if you know you won’t be able to file your return on time, file an automatic extension using form 4868. You can do this online through the Free File link at, through a tax software program or through a professional tax preparer. The form asks you to estimate your tax liability and pay what you think you will owe. Even if your estimate turns out to be incorrect, it could reduce any late payment penalties you might owe, and you won’t be subject to late filing penalties.


Credit: Investopedia

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How much do we charge for tax service?

The accountancy profession is deregulated and hence, there are no set scales of fees for work undertaken by Certified Practising Accountants. The marketplace determines rates, ensuring that fees remain competitive, which is an advantage for potential users of accounting services. You will find that our fees are based on a reasonable fee-for-time basis. In other words, you only pay for the time actually spent completing your work.


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#2A Credits

There are two new directives; the first one is for the fast reaction mechanism aimed towards preventing VAT fraud.The second one is for the optional and temporary application of the reverse charge mechanism in relation to supplies of certain goods and services. Quick Reaction mechanism provides the legal basis to the countries that are members of the EU to integrate an emergency measure that are in position to serious case of sudden and massive VAT fraud.

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