First, the brand new mountain of the relationship BP having Na consumption varied of the energy consumption, recommending one Na thickness can get mirror the partnership having BP most useful than just pure Na intake do
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
Which studies are presented to decide perhaps the relationship anywhere between Na and BP may vary which have time intake. Several key results emerged. Second, because the in earlier times stated, the result of Na avoidance was attenuated from the setting off new Dashboard eating plan compared to the newest manage eating plan, indicating you to definitely areas of eating plan also dictate the fresh new BP reaction to alterations in Na intake. 5,several,13 In addition to attenuating new BP xcheaters ekÅŸi reaction to Na, the fresh Dash diet also decreased BP, in line with evidence one to aspects of eating plan, in addition to a greater intake regarding potassium, by themselves lower BP. fourteen 3rd, new connection from Na with opportunity intake toward BP continued when this new analyses had been stratified by the battle, with the exception of DBP certainly whites. 4th, having stratification of the carrying excess fat condition, larger differences in BP from the times intake were seen among those who were nonobese compared to fat.
Even though the Dash–Na research controlled Na density, and not absolute Na consumption, the first result of that it demo have been interpreted regarding Na consumption as opposed to Na occurrence. The deficiency of reporting performance from the Na thickness will get echo brand new absence of investigation for the energy intake a number of degree. Comparison of one’s dating regarding Na thickness having mortality in the observational research has given mixed abilities. The analysis out-of Na thickness having mortality regarding the NHANES II follow-upwards research (National Health insurance and Diet Test Survey) and you can from NHANES III advised an enthusiastic inverse organization from Na and you may heart disease mortality, in the event considering Na with regards to time consumption. 15,sixteen On these degree, although not, Na and effort consumption was basically estimated using one 24-hours remember, that’s not adequate to imagine one’s common slimming down consumption due to large day-to-go out type in Na consumption and effort intake and their proportion. Then, opportunity consumption are implausibly low in both studies. You’ll be able to your noticed relationship anywhere between Na consumption and you can cardiovascular illnesses death can be explained by around-revealing bias, that’s, in the event that over weight people declaration all the way down Na thickness and are usually likely to be to perish away from cardiovascular illnesses, the newest noticed dating could possibly get mirror the new impression out-of carrying excess fat rather than diet plan. The newest proof out of a prospective cohort study (n=716, 19-year realize-up) aligns into the results of the current study, having claimed frequency away from cardiovascular situations twice as highest one of those regarding the large rather than lowest quartile off Na occurrence (22% in the place of 11%, respectively; P=0.005) centered on eight-time dining records collected at the baseline. 17